Plaquenil is used to treat or prevent malaria, a disease caused by parasites that enter the body through the bite of a mosquito. Malaria is common in areas such as Africa, South America, and Southern Asia. Avn with hydroxychloroquine Propranolol interactions with hydroxychloroquine Lyons emphasizes the importance of annual screening and says that, although annual screening is recommended for everyone taking Plaquenil, it is imperative for people who have been taking the medication for more than 10 years, who have a higher incidence of retinal toxicity. Plaquenil-induced toxicity usually will not occur before five years of. Objective To report the detailed clinical findings of patients with retinal toxicity that developed secondary to the use of hydroxychloroquine sulfate n = 13, chloroquine phosphate n = 2, or a combination of the agents n = 1. Methods Ophthalmologic examination, fundus photography, visual field testing, and detailed electrophysiologic assessment were undertaken in all 16 affected patients. Jun 11, 2009 Retinal toxicity has been shown in patients taking greater than 3 mg/kg/day of chloroquine or 6.5 mg/kg/day of hydroxychloroquine. While most cases of toxicity have been reported for chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine has supplanted it as the more commonly used treatment agent for both RA and SLE. 2 Plaquenil is also an antirheumatic medicine and is used to treat symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and discoid or systemic lupus erythematosus. This medicine is not effective against all strains of malaria. Chloroquine retinal cell Chloroquine Modes of action of an undervalued drug., Retinal Toxicity Associated With Hydroxychloroquine and. Plaquenil pregnancy category cDress syndrome hydroxychloroquinePlaquenil for rosacea Retained HCQ in the RPE cell may be the underlying cause of progressive retinal thinning observed in Obvious eyes after 12 months drug cessation. After intravenous injection of chloroquine into a rabbit, high concentrations of chloroquine are found in the pigmented ocular tissues RPE, choroid, iris. These levels remain high for over 2 months. Expanded spectral domain-OCT findings in the early detection.. Common Medications That May Be Toxic to the Retina. Chloroquine And Hydroxychloroquine Toxicity -. Sundelin SP, Terman A. Different elements of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine on lysosomal function in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells. APMIS. 2002;11-9. 2. Gamanu Panca A, Popa-Cherecheanu A, Marinescu B, et al. Retinal toxicity associated with chronic exposure to hydroxychloroquine and its ocular screening. Review. Chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine belong to the quinolone family. They are related drugs with similar clinical indications for use and similar manifestations of retinal toxicity, although their therapeutic and toxic doses differ. Chloroquine has a particularly high affinity for melanin-containing cells and hence there are very high levels of chloroquine in the skin mainly, the epidermis and retina. Chloroquine has a long half-life, which can vary between 74 hours and 50 days, depending on the cumulative dose.